The primary metals and metal mining sectors accounted for 43% of the total 3.8 billion pounds of toxic releases in 2008.
Flat Panel Displays' Environmental Assessment and Improvement
Evaluating Environmental Performance: A Case Study in the Flat Panel Display Industry develops a four step framework for evaluating environmental performance and explores how a manufacturer of flat panel displays, OIS Optical Imaging Systems, may enhance its competitive position and environmental performance. There are several objectives of this research including: (1) provide a methodology for evaluating the interrelationship between business and the environment; (2) provide environmental metrics to OIS for incorporation into a factory simulation model; and (3) apply the life cycle design, multicriteria analysis. The four step framework for evaluating environmental performance follows a sequential analytical process from (1) industry structural analysis; to (2) corporate-level analysis; to (3) process-level analysis; and then to (4) improvement strategies. A number of recommendations are made to OIS including: Develop a unique set of capabilities that enable the integration of computer electronics and the display; pursue cost reduction projects that minimize environmental burden; prioritize environmental spending based on technical flexibility and relative environmental risks; and develop an environmental management system. Analysis of OIS's manufacturing process indicated that most processes and materials used throughout the manufacture of flat panel displays contribute environmental burdens and seven categories of impacts are described throughout the report including: Energy use; air quality; global climate change; resource depletion; land use development; solid and hazardous waste; water quality; and human health. Environmental improvement strategies are summarized in four multicriteria matrices and a continuum that is based on the business strategy ultimately pursued by OIS. (publication CSS95-04 is an IEEE paper, while CSS96-03 is Koch's Masters Thesis)